Cynthia Breazeal has no time for me, but she’s still going to show me her
robot. As we pass through the halls of MIT’s Artificial Intelligence lab,
now spearheaded by the robotics guru Rodney Brooks, Breazeal — a youngish
Korean-American snowboarding fanatic — explains how urgently she needs to
complete her Ph.D. thesis. This is her way of telling me that she does not
have the half hour or so to boot up Kismet, the robot that’s consumed her
research days for the last three years. Bummer.

Then we round a corner and I glimpse her pride and joy, anchored to a
mundane workbench. Even asleep, Kismet is fascinating. You might expect the latest
anthropomorphic robot of one of the most prestigious engineering
universities in the world to strike the eye with formidable force, like an
android Iron Man, or a Barishnikov of articulated motion. But despite his
exposed armature, Kismet seems sweet and approachable, like a robot raised
by a kindly woodsman or a prototype prop from Teletubbies 2. With his
big doe eyes, donkey-like ears, and absence of limbs, Kismet looks like a
Furby who has clamored a few more rungs up the Lamarkian ladder of
technological evolution, shedding his fur and becoming even more
disturbingly cute.

The cuteness, at least, was intentional. After all, if robots are to
eventually move out of the assembly plant and into ordinary people’s lives,
they must develop social interfaces that can attract and sustain the
attention of humans. One of the easiest ways to achieve this feat is to
program machines to look and behave like humans or mammals. “Our goal with
Kismet is to make the robot as readable and intuitive and natural as
possible,” Breazeal says, explaining Kismet’s childlike appearance. But the
goal Breazeal set for herself went far beyond Kismet’s armature and
programming, and into the social relationship that includes both robot and
human being. “We wanted to create an infant-caregiver-like interaction,”
Breazeal explains. “People evolved to be socially intelligent, and we think
robots can benefit from this kind of intelligence.”

Kismet’s goofy ears and Walter Keane eyes are already enough to trigger
gooey feelings inside human beings, but the machine’s resemblance to a
budding mammal is more than cosmetic. Besides keeping his sensors and servos
up and running, Kismet’s fifteen computers — including a Linux box, Macs,
various home-brewed boards, and nine four hundred megahertz computers for
vision alone — run a variety of behavioral and emotional models based on
early human development. These models give Kismet specific drives, similar
to our own genetic drives for comfort, contact, and communication. At the
same time, the robot’s appearance is also designed to trigger the human
impulse to nurture young mammals. After all, there are good Darwinian
reasons for finding big eyes cute, whether on puppies or Japanese
manga babes.

By tricking humans into feeling like proud mamas and dadas, Breazeal hopes
they will be drawn to nurture the robot, enabling the machine to actually
learn from us the way we learn from our caregivers. Specifically, Breazeal
hopes people will perform the same slow, repetitive and patient games that
help young children to understand the world around them. “People treat
infants as being more intelligent and consistent than they are,” Breazeal
explains. “They model their own mind on the child. We want them to do the
same thing with Kismet.”


The moment Rodney Brooks shows up in the lab, Breazeal takes the opportunity
to cut out. Dressed in a snazzy blue suit, hair cut and trim, Brooks does
not resemble the bug-eyed wildman who provided the title and much of the
energy for Errol Morris’s documentary Fast, Cheap and Out of Control.
Instead, Brooks looks like the department head he has become. “Now I spend
all my day talking to journalists,” he says with a grin. “I barely even
answer my e-mail anymore.”

Back in the late 1980s, Brooks helped revolutionize robotics with ideas that
eventually wound up scuttling across Mars. Instead of the traditional AI
approach to smart machines, which tried to program robots with centralized
symbolic representations of the world around them, Brooks imagined machines
that learned about their environment by exploring it according to simple,
highly distributed rules of behavior. The inspiration for Brooks’s first
robots were not chess-playing automata, but insects.

From the beginning, though, Brooks’s approach was far more than a design
strategy. His vision implied a profound philosophical turn away from the
Cartesian premises of classical AI, which imagines the human mind as a
disembodied symbolic processor. Instead, Brooks believes that cognition
emerges from the history of the organism’s interactions with the world
around it, interactions which themselves are thoroughly distributed
throughout the body. The results of these simple interactions are subsumed
into higher global behaviors, which ultimately lead, at least in us, to
consciousness. Brooks’s approach is, to use overly simplistic terms, “bottom
up” rather than “top down.” To be conscious is to be engaged in a world.

In order to test their theories about the role of embodiment in robot
cognition, Brooks and his team built Cog, a man-sized head and torso
designed to learn about its environment through trial and error exploration.
At first, the lab wasn’t thinking about modeling anything like human
development; they just wanted to train Cog’s sensors and basic behaviors.
“But eventually,” Brooks says, “we realized that the learning problems got
easier if you did them in stages instead of having everything all on at once
— much like a baby develops. If you do that, then each of the learning
problems became much lower dimensional and much easier to manage.”

This realization planted the seeds for Kismet. But what really got the team
jazzed about building a social robot was a curious behavior that Cog
displayed one day when they were filming it interacting with Breazeal. In
the clip, Breazeal moves a block, and then Cog, following her motion with
its eyes, tries to grab the object. Breazeal moves the block again, and Cog
repeats his action, this time dropping the object. “So what’s going on
there?” Brooks asks about the scene as he plays it back on his Powerbook G3.
“She’s doing something, the robot’s doing something, she’s doing something.
To an external observer, it looks like they’re taking turns. But the robot
has no turn-taking code in it.”

This emergent behavior got Brooks’s team considering the way that people,
especially mothers, play with their kids. “Think about the way in which
mothers lead their infants in behaviors,” Brooks explains. “The mother is
doing stuff the kids can’t quite do by themselves, but the mother isn’t
thinking ‘Oh, the kid can’t do it.’ Instead, they’re playing a game
together. And out of that game the kid gets exposed to stuff from which they
can learn.”

The idea of encouraging shared behavior dovetailed with another problem that
concerned some of the AI lab’s corporate sponsors. “How can you show a robot
how to do something?” Brooks asks, picking up a pen as an example. “Let’s
say I’d like to be able to tell you to put one thousand pens together. Well,
I don’t want to hack C++ code. I just want to talk to you. But I also know
when you are not paying attention.” He waves the pen. “I show you this and
then I glance up at you to see where your eyes are. So we’ve got this shared
attention between us. You nod when it’s making sense and that makes me
understand that I can explain more. So you control me and I control you.
There is no master.”

This vision of shared attention and level interaction is leaps and bounds
away from traditional robotic ideas, which often conceive of robots as
slaves — capable of self-movement, yes, but not autonomous in any real
sense. The master-slave dialectic is not just Hegelian runoff. In the world
of telerobotics, where human operators control mechanisms at a distance, the
two sides of the action are explicitly dubbed “master” and “slave.” But
Brooks and Breazeal are imagining something quite different: a feedback loop
in which humans and machines constantly modify one another. As such, their
work has moved beyond the challenge of simply engineering better robots —
they are also engineering a new kind of social relationship. “Kismet was
designed to be a human-robot system, not just a robot,” explains Breazeal.
“What we know about people is being put into the system. It’s designed for
human nature.”


Kismet may or may not open up new avenues in robot research, but that’s not
why you are reading about him here, in the first installment of The
Posthuman Condition.
I’m interested in Kismet because he can tell us
something about that “human nature” that Breazeal is so interested in
feeding into her system. Human nature is a mercurial thing. Composed of
enormous redundancies, we are also protean, historical beings. So I think it
is fair to suggest that human nature shifts in a world where an artifact
like Kismet is even possible. The word kismet means fate, and that is how I
choose to read the robot: as one more fractured augury of the cyborg
subjectivity that we are booting up as we plunge towards an age of spiritual
— or at least psychological — machines.

Of course, technology has always been a reflection of our images and
understanding of ourselves, not to mention the larger social and political
forces that inform subjectivity. This is particularly true when you are
talking robots, which almost by definition imply some model or concept of
human activity. In pop culture and industry, robots and toylike automatons
have already donned the guise of slaves, workers, musicians, playmates,
beasts, warriors, and — coming soon to a porno shop near you — sex
partners. Kismet, in turn, reflects new concepts about early human
development, concepts that have already started to alter our image of the
human self. From the growing sexiness of neural science to the exploding
market for infant intelligence toys, we are becoming obsessed with the
malleability — the programmability — of the young nervous system, when the
budding brain translates its physical and cognitive environment into

If robots like Kismet are mirrors of ourselves and our desires, then they
must ultimately raise the same question that all mirrors do: Who is staring
back? When we look into the sensors and cameras that serve as eyes in a
robot like Kismet, what do we see? Machines, software agents, emergent
avatars? But the question of how and when we will perceive robots as
conscious agents is intimately tied to the question of how we come to view
our own consciousness and agency. The Turing test is a parlor game, a
rationalist trick: The real issue is not whether or not the machine can
trick us, but how the presence of technological Others makes us revise our
own self-image, our own experience of ourselves. “Who is staring back?”
melts back down to the most ancient of queries, “Who am I?”

The impossibility of answering this question to anyone’s lasting
satisfaction is one thread of that existential conundrum — tapestry?
prison? trap? — we have come to call “the human condition.” We are no
closer to answering that question today. At the same time, our
technoscientific civilization is inching closer and closer to some mighty
formidable answers to the more general question of what human beings are —
or at least how they work. Scrape the creams off the latest findings in
molecular biology, neuropharmacology, and cognitive science, not to mention
the looser claims of evolutionary psychologists and social scientists, and
you will find yourself loaded up with rich, pragmatic diagnoses of our

How these technoscientific concepts will or should interface with the
everyday selves we wake up in every morning is, needless to say, an open
question. Indeed, the gap between blistering objective scientific accounts
of human subjectivity and our own experience of that subjectivity — a
necessary and nearly irreducible gap in my book — is a defining
characteristic of what I am calling the posthuman condition. Of course, the
scientific understanding of ourselves has always looped back and altered
cultural and personal perceptions, even if images like the Cartesian watch
and the Freudian steam engine proved cockeyed in the end. The current
obsession with mechanistic neo-Darwinian accounts of agency, consciousness,
and the self may prove equally lopsided, but these ideas are deeply
influencing popular culture. Moreover, they are riding the coattails of
actual products and practices, like gene splicing, human-computer couplings,
and an expanding pharmacopia of psychoactive drugs.

As the implications of technoscience continue to sink in, we move ever
closer to the pivot of subjectivity. We may wake up one day soon, already
halfway across our own cyborg Rubicon, with the old humanist stories about
freedom and will simply running on autopilot. The mid-twentieth-century
mind was rocked by the knowledge that human beings could actually destroy
the planet, but this realization was only a foreshock of our imminent
ability to engineer the biosphere, to create transgenic species, to clone
ourselves, to alter the human gene line, and even to edge up against the
programmed senescence of cells. When the human condition itself is up for
grabs, even in theory, then we are no longer exactly human.

Of course, after years of postmodernism, poststructuralism, postcolonialism,
and all those other poster children for our belated zeitgeist, “posthuman”
might just further muddy the waters. The malleability of humanity — the
unnatural shiftiness of human nature, which always slips beyond itself —
was already a fundamental axiom of Renaissance humanism, when the Florentine
Pico della Mirandola put these words in the Supreme Maker’s mouth: “We have
made you a creature neither of heaven nor of earth, neither mortal nor
immortal, in order that you may, as the free and proud shaper of your own
being, fashion yourself in the form you may prefer.”

In the minds of many of today’s self-proclaimed “posthumans,” Pico’s
rallying cry has simply gone futurist. For these folks, also known as
transhumans and extropians, science and technology are opening up a glorious
techno-Nietzschean millennium of longevity, neural self-programming, cyborg
symbiosis, nanotechnology, and rapacious libertarian economies. This “Up
with cyborgs!” boosterism does serve the vital role of reminding us how our
fundamental beliefs about what is and is not possible are changing on an
almost molecular scale. But in their almost adolescent hatred of
limitations, extropians ignore the screwy cultural and psychological
consequences of our changing human image, let alone the dark side of all
these Faustian pacts. For me, the posthuman condition is a far more
critical, ambiguous zone, one in which technoscience deepens rather than
resolves the contradictions that characterize the fragile ground we walk

One boundary of this zone is our deepening symbiosis with machines. In the
twentieth century, one dominant myth imagined technology as a massive
dehumanizing force — just think of Charlie Chaplin as a cog in the machine
of Modern Times. But Kismet points to a very different world, neither
a dystopian Metropolis or a utopian transhuman paradise. With Kismet,
humanness is neither eradicated nor finally fulfilled, but swallowed up
inside a technological design. In other words, humanness becomes a feature.

The paradox is that in order to inject human qualities into the “robot-human
system” that the AI lab set out to construct, they had to understand certain
things about humans in as quantifiable and objective terms as possible. They
had to gain some knowledge of how we track each other with our eyes, how we
respond to infants, how infants respond to external cues. In other words, to
make Kismet behave naturally, the Lab had to understand humans as machines
— highly complex and adaptive machines to be sure, but machines
nonetheless. Even if we recognize that human development is an astoundingly
complex “holistic” process driven by a symphony of causes, we still can
begin to nudge that complexity out of circuitry. This is, after all, what
Rodney Brooks has always tried to do with his robots, whose behavior is a
global effect of many smaller and simpler processes running in parallel.

In Breazeal’s “human-robot system,” human nature does not disappear but
becomes abstracted from the embodied social interaction of hairy primates,
translated into code, and then fed back into an expanding cybernetic system
that includes both human and machine agents. This is an allegory for the
future, a snapshot of the posthuman condition. It remains to be seen whether
we will optimistically expand the range of human qualities to include
machines, bringing them at least partway into the circle of agency, or
whether friendly-faced technology will increasingly seem to parrot,
undermine, and even usurp our simian sociability. One thing seems sure. No
one holds the copyright on human nature, and no one controls the drift of
human characteristics into technological avatars. We may sometimes feel like
slaves to our technology, but, as Rodney Brooks put it, there is no master.